Why I am a Continuationist1
[As you probably know by now, Tom Schreiner and I both wrote articles for the Gospel Coalition website that were published last Thursday. Tom’s title was, “Why I am a Cessationist,” whereas mine is, “Why I am a Continuationist.” You can read mine below.] Continue reading . . .
[As you probably know by now, Tom Schreiner and I both wrote articles for the Gospel Coalition website that were published last Thursday. Tom’s title was, “Why I am a Cessationist,” whereas mine is, “Why I am a Continuationist.” You can read mine below.]
So, why am I a continuationist? My reasons follow. [Please note that I’ve written several articles that provide more extensive evidence for the points I make, but space limitations permit me only to mention them by name. All of them are found at www.samstorms.org.]
Let me begin with the consistent, indeed pervasive, and altogether positive presence throughout the NT of all spiritual gifts. The problems that emerged in the church at Corinth were not due to spiritual gifts, but to immature people. It was not the gifts of God but the childish, ambitious, and prideful distortion of gifts on the part of some in that church that accounts for Paul’s corrective comments.
Furthermore, beginning with Pentecost, and continuing throughout the book of Acts, whenever the Spirit is poured out on new believers they experience the manifestation of his charismata. There is nothing to indicate these phenomena were restricted to them and then. Such appears to be both widespread and common in the NT church. Christians in Rome (Rom. 12), Corinth (1 Cor. 12-14), Samaria (Acts 8), Caesarea (Acts 10), Antioch (Acts 13), Ephesus (Acts 19), Thessalonica (1 Thess. 5), and Galatia (Gal. 3) experience the miraculous and revelatory gifts. It is difficult to imagine how the NT authors could have said any more clearly than this what New Covenant Christianity is supposed to look like. In other words, the burden of proof rests with the cessationist. If certain gifts of a special class have ceased, the responsibility is his to prove it.
I would also point to the extensive NT evidence of the operation of so-called miraculous gifts among Christians who are not apostles. In other words, numerous non-apostolic men and women, young and old, across the breadth of the Roman Empire consistently exercised these gifts of the Spirit (and Stephen and Philip ministered in the power of signs and wonders). Others, aside from the apostles, who exercised miraculous gifts include (1) the 70 who were commissioned in Luke 10:9,19-20; (2) at least 108 people among the 120 who were gathered in the upper room on the day of Pentecost; (3) Stephen (Acts 6-7); (4) Phillip (Acts 8); (5) Ananias (Acts 9); (6) church members in Antioch (Acts 13); (7) anonymous converts in Ephesus (Acts 19:6); (8) women at Caesarea (Acts 21:8-9); (9) the unnamed brethren of Gal. 3:5; (10) believers in Rome (Rom. 12:6-8); (11) believers in Corinth (1 Cor. 12-14); and (12) Christians in Thessalonica (1 Thess. 5:19-20).
We must also give room to the explicit and oft-repeated purpose of the charismata: namely, the edification of the body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:7; 14:3, 26). Nothing that I read in the NT nor see in the condition of the church in any age, past or present, leads me to believe we have progressed beyond the need for edification and therefore beyond the need for the contribution of the charismata. I freely admit that spiritual gifts were essential for the birth of the church, but why would they be any less important or needful for its continued growth and maturation?
There is also the fundamental continuity or spiritually organic relationship between the church in Acts and the church in subsequent centuries. No one denies that there was an era or period in the early church that we might call “apostolic”. We must acknowledge the significance of the personal physical presence of the apostles and their unique role in laying the foundation for the early church. But nowhere does the NT ever suggest that certain spiritual gifts were uniquely and exclusively tied to them or that with their passing is the passing of such gifts. The universal church or body of Christ that was established and gifted through the ministry of the apostles is the same universal church and body of Christ that exists today. We are together with Paul and Peter and Silas and Lydia and Priscilla and Luke members of the same one body of Christ.
Very much related to the previous point is what Peter says in Acts 2 concerning the operation of so-called miraculous gifts as characteristic of the New Covenant age of the Church. As D. A. Carson has said, “the coming of the Spirit is not associated merely with the dawning of the new age but with its presence, not merely with Pentecost but with the entire period from Pentecost to the return of Jesus the Messiah” (Showing the Spirit, 155). Or again, the gifts of prophecy and tongues (Acts 2) are not portrayed as merely inaugurating the New Covenant Age but as characterizing it (and let us not forget that the present church age = the “last days”).
We must also take note of 1 Cor. 13:8-12. Here Paul asserts that spiritual gifts will not “pass away” (vv. 8-10) until the coming of the “perfect.” If the “perfect” is indeed the consummation of God’s redemptive purposes as expressed in the New Heaven and New Earth, following Christ’s return, we can confidently expect him to continue to bless and empower his church with the gifts until that time.
A similar point is made in Eph. 4:11-13. There Paul speaks of the bestowal of spiritual gifts (together with the office of apostle), and in particular the gifts of prophecy, evangelism, pastor, and teacher, as functioning in the building up of the church “until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ” (v. 13; italics mine). Since the latter most assuredly has not yet been attained by the Church, we can confidently anticipate the presence and power of such gifts until that day arrives.
I would also point to the absence of any explicit or implicit notion that we should view spiritual gifts any differently than we do other NT practices and ministries that are portrayed as essential for the life and well-being of the Church. When we read the NT, it seems evident on the surface of things that church discipline is to be practiced in our assemblies today and that we are to celebrate the Lord’s Table and water baptism, and that the requirements for the office of Elder as set forth in the pastoral epistles are still guidelines for how life in the church is to be pursued, just to mention a few. What good exegetical or theological reasons can be given why we should treat the presence and operation of spiritual gifts any differently?
Contrary to popular belief, there is consistent testimony throughout most of church history concerning the operation of the miraculous gifts of the Spirit. It simply isn’t the case that the gifts ceased or disappeared from early church life following the death of the last apostle. Space does not permit me to cite the massive evidence in this regard, so I refer the reader to four articles I wrote with extensive documentation (see “Spiritual Gifts in Church History”).
Cessationists often argue that signs and wonders as well as certain spiritual gifts served only to confirm or authenticate the original company of apostles and that when the apostles passed away so also did the gifts. The fact is, no biblical text (not even Heb. 2:4 or 2 Cor. 12:12, two texts that I explain in articles at www.samstorms.org) ever says that signs and wonders or spiritual gifts of a particular sort authenticated the apostles. Signs and wonders authenticated Jesus and the apostolic message about him. If signs and wonders were designed exclusively to authenticate apostles, we have no explanation why non-apostolic believers (such as Philip and Stephen) were empowered to perform them (see especially 1 Cor. 12:8-10, where the “gift” of “miracles,” among others, was given to average, non-apostolic believers).
Therefore, this is a good reason for being a cessationist only if you can demonstrate that authentication or attestation of the apostolic message was the sole and exclusive purpose of such displays of divine power. However, nowhere in the NT is the purpose or function of the miraculous or the charismata reduced to that of attestation. The miraculous, in whatever form in which it appeared, served several other distinct purposes: doxological (to glorify God - John 11:4; 11:40; John 2:11; 9:3; and Matt. 15:29-31); evangelistic (to prepare the way for the gospel to be made known - see Acts 9:32-43); pastoral (as an expression of compassion and love and care for the sheep - Matt. 14:14; Mark 1:40-41); and edification (to build up and strengthen believers - 1 Cor. 12:7 and the “common good”; 1 Cor. 14:3, 4, 5, 26).
All the gifts of the Spirit, whether tongues or teaching, whether prophecy or mercy, whether healing or helps, were given, among other reasons, for the edification, building up, encouraging, instructing, consoling and sanctifying of the body of Christ. Therefore, even if the ministry of the miraculous gifts to attest and authenticate has ceased, a point I concede only for the sake of argument, such gifts would continue to function in the church for the other reasons cited.
Perhaps the most frequently heard objection by cessationists is the fear that to acknowledge the validity of revelatory gifts such as prophecy and word of knowledge would necessarily undermine the finality and sufficiency of Holy Scripture. But this argument is based on the false assumption that these gifts provide us with infallible truths that are equal in authority to the biblical text itself (see my article, “Why NT Prophecy does NOT result in ‘Scripture-quality’ revelatory words”).
One also hears the cessationist appeal to Ephesians 2:20, as if this text is descriptive of all possible prophetic ministry. The argument is that revelatory gifts such as prophecy were uniquely linked to the apostles and therefore designed to function only during the so-called foundational period in the early church. That this is fundamentally misguided is something I address at length in the article, “Ephesians 2:20 – The Cessationist’s ‘Go-To’ Text.” A close examination of the biblical evidence concerning both the nature of the prophetic gift as well as its widespread distribution among Christians clearly indicates that there was far more to this gift than simply the apostles laying the foundation of the church. Therefore, neither the passing of the apostles nor the movement of the church beyond its foundational years has any bearing whatsoever on the validity of prophecy today.
One also hears often of the so-called “cluster” argument, according to which supernatural and miraculous phenomena were supposedly concentrated or clustered at unique periods in redemptive history. I’ve addressed this argument elsewhere and demonstrate that it is altogether false (see “Cessationism and the So-Called ‘Cluster’ Argument: A Response”).
Finally, although it is technically not a reason or argument for being a continuationist, I cannot ignore personal experience. The fact is that I’ve seen all spiritual gifts in operation, tested and confirmed them, and experienced them first-hand on countless occasions. As stated, this is less a reason to become a continuationist and more a confirmation (although not an infallible one) of the validity of that decision. Experience, in isolation from the biblical text, proves little. But experience must be noted, especially if it illustrates or embodies what we see in the text.